"As societies build walls of separation between communities,
ICAAD works to remove each brick to illuminate our common humanity"

UPR Country Data

CountryDiscriminatory PolicyIssueState ActionState ResponseProgram AreaAffected Group(s)Implementing Reform 
AustraliaNeed to comply with already ratified ICERD, CEDAW, ICCPR and CRC treaties, so that it may be used in domestic lawAs per the Constitution today, these conventions need not be applied in Australian law (Section 117 of Constitution)Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen, ChildrenNo
AustraliaRacial Discrimination Act 1975 sec. 9, 12, Koowarta v Bjelke-Petersen High Court of Australia 1982 (153 CLR 168) [where "special measures" towards indigenous groups were constitutional]Includes "special measures" towards differing groups. This heightened discretion leaves door open for direct discrimination and disparate treatment under the letter of the la that specifically allow racial discrimination.Specific actionAcceptedMinority RightsMinorities, WomenNo
AustraliaMarion's Case, High Court 1992Unclear holding has allowed for the often unlawful non-therapeautic and illegal sterilization of young women and childrenSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
AustraliaNational Plan to Reduce Violence Against Women and Their ChildrenWomen are less likely to have high-end position, more likely to hold lower-paying jobs and far more prone to violence and sexual harassment which commonly goes unpunished. The situation only worsens if said individuals are also indigenousGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rights, minority rights, children's rightWomen, Minorities, ChildrenNo
AustraliaSex Discrimination Act 1984 (Cth)Format is reactive and complaints-based, fails to actively promote equality and address systemic discrimination, does not address all grounds of discrimination, exempts sporting clubs, religious bodies and charitiesGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
AustraliaNorthern Territory National Emergency Response Act 2007 Sec. 31Government can acquire indigenous lands and further leases by regulation without consent of Aboriginal landowners (including lack of due translation services), does not allow residents the right of residenceSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rights / Indigenous rightsWomen, MinoritiesNo
AustraliaMigration Amendment (Regaining Control Over Australia's Protection Obligations) to Migration Act 1958 (Cth)Need to address asylum seeker rights, since under current Act they can be subject to torture and arbitrary detentionGeneral actionAcceptedMigrant rightsImmigrantsNo
AustraliaImprove human rights elements of its training for law enforcement personnelMinorities make up over 60% of incarcerated populationGeneralAcceptedMinority RightsMinorityNo
AustraliaAustralian Federal Police Act 1979No specificity as to what levels of force may be used. Also loopholes as to when an investigation may begin in regards to police misconductSpecific ActionNotedMinority RightsMinoritiesNo
AustraliaGrant comprehensive protection to rights of equality and nondiscrimination in its federal lawCurrent federal law is structurally discriminatory in nature and does not apply to the majority of indigenous tribes in the Northern TerritoryGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rights, Women's rightsMinorities, WomenNo
AustraliaFair Work Act 2009, Section 1--3 (Division 2, 26)As it stands, companies can use their discretion (and biases) and veer away from equal payGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rights / Indigenous rightsMinorities, WomenNo
AustraliaIncrease the participation of the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in the process of closing the gap in opportunities and life outcomes -General ActionAcceptedIndigenous rightsMinoritiesNo
AustraliaDisability Discrimination ActThough discrimination based on disability is prohibited, exceptions apply which allow for disabled workers to be fired if they cannot fulfill "inherent" tasks of their jobGeneralAcceptedWomen's rights / Indigenous rightsWomen, MinoritiesNo
AustriaGender inequality in the workplaceNo follow-up CEDAW's recommendations on inequality between women and men, particularly in the workplace, and to intensify efforts to eliminate violence against womenSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
AustriaDomestic violenceFailure to ensure that national laws for the protection against domestic violence are applied at all levels in a coherent and effective manner.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
AustriaGender inequality in the workplaceImplementation of the National Action Plan for gender equality in the labor marketSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
AustriaGender inequality in the workplaceDe jure gender equality, with special attention to the labor market, not legislatively ensuredSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
AustriaGender inequality in the workplaceLack of full implementation of 55 concrete measures towards the elimination of obstacles for women in accessing the labor marketSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
AustriaLack of legal protection for cultural minorityWeak implementation of Constitutional Court ruling regarding the use of the Slovenian language in Carinthia provinceSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsSloveniansNo
AustriaNo criminalization of incitement on racial or ethnic groundsFailure to legislatively condemn incitement to violence or hatred or to agitate against a national or ethnic groupSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic and national minoritiesNo
AustriaFailure to protect minorities facing hate crimesWeak or no measures combating neo-Nazi, right-wing, and other extremist xenophobic incidents directed against members of minority groupsGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic and national minorities
AustriaFailure to protect minorities facing hate crimesFailure to ensure the full respect of the rights of migrants and minorities including the Roma, including by strengthening the measures against acts of racial discrimination, xenophobia and intoleranceGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic and national minoritiesNo
AustriaFailure to protect minorities facing hate crimes and bring perpetrators to justiceFailure to investigate complaints of all ill-treatment by ethnic minorities, including Africans and Roma, and hold perpetrators responsibleSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic and national minorities
AustriaFailure to criminalize ethnically or nationally motivated hate speech by public figuresReported hate speech by politicians, targeting migrants, asylum-seekers, refugees, and persons of African originGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic and national minorities
AustriaFailure to implement case law protecting Slovene minorityFailure to comply with Treaty of Saint-Germain and Austrian State Treaty provisions on the rights of minoritiesSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsSlovenians
AustriaNo data collection on racist and discriminatory incidentsNo process of collection or generation of disaggregated data on manifestations of racism and discriminationSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesNo
AustriaAssimilation of Roma into German-language schoolsNo guarantees to Roma children of the right to education in their own language or in a relevant way with their own cultureSpecific actionMinority rightsRomaNo
BelgiumAct of 10 May 2007Policies narrowly focused on transportation/communication policies and employment; Lack of overall vision and integrationGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsPersons with disabilitiesPartial
BelgiumLegislative recognition of faiths and philophical opinionsInconsistent system of recognition of faiths and philosophical opinions leads to exclusion;.
.
Specific actionAcceptedReligious freedomReligious minorities (Buddhists)No
BelgiumAct of 10 May 2007General legislation against discrimination not contemplated with reference to religious minority oppression by legislative recognition of certain faithsSpecific actionAcceptedReligious freedomReligious minorities (Buddhists)No
BelgiumConstitution Article 24

Francophone comunity Decree of 31 March 1994 on the neutrality of faith at school

Flemish comunity circular dated 1 February 2013
No national legislation; Schols and local authorities prohibit the wearing of headscarves in schools; Result is removal of scarf or changing schools, which impedes equality of educational accessSpecific actionRejectedReligious freedomFemale youthNo
BelgiumAct of 30 July 1981, Article 12 .

Act of 23 March 1995
Despite laws prohibiting acts of racism and/or denying the Holocaust, resurgence in acts and speechs that propagate hate discrimination or violenceSpecific actionRejectedMinority rightsReligious minorities; Ethnic minorities (Muslims)No
BelgiumAct of 10 May 2007Inadequate mechanisms to eliminate discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation and gender identitySpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsLGBTNo
BelgiumAct of 25 February 2003Lack of de facto effect of anti-discriminatory laws and policies based on gender identity, especially as regards pay equality and access to leadership positions for women
General actionAcceptedMinority rightsLGBT; WomenNo
BelgiumAct of 22 April 2012Lack of sufficient measures in order to reduce the pay gap between men and women - no adequate execution of the law on the fifght against the gender pay gap.
Women still earn less than men on the labour market in Belgium.
General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
BelgiumNational Plan of Action to reduce poverty 2012Poverty rates remain high; many children still live under the risk-of-poverty threshold; no sufficient structure for unaccompanied children of foreign originGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsHomeless (Women, Children); Children of foreign originPartial
BelgiumMinisterial Decision of 1 October 2008The detention of families (including children) stopped at the border without entry documents, despite law prohibiting thisContinuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsAsylum seekers (Women; Children; Families; Elderly)Partial
BelgiumAct of 15 December 1980Insufficient procedures and policies to address the needs of asylum seekers; lack of legal assistance to asylum-seekersContinuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsAsylum seekers (Women; Children; Families; Elderly)Partial
BelgiumAct of 15 December 1980, Article 39/2The Counil for Alien Disputes ("CCE") does not have investigative powers nor legal aid provisio; Restrictions in the rights of defense of migrantsContinuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsAsylum seekers (Women; Children; Families; Elderly)No
BelgiumAct of 15 December 1980

Royal Decree of 8 October 1981
Lack of transparency of the asylum procedure; Restrictions in the rights of defense of migrantsSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsAsylum seekers (Women; Children; Families; Elderly)No
BelgiumLack of policies to govern access to basic aid once asylum seekers are granted asylumLimited acces to housing, medical and legal aid leads to economic and social exclusion.Continuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsAsylum seekers (Women; Children; Families; Elderly)No
BelgiumFailure to provide women asylum-seekers with assistance from female officialsWomen cannot fully exercice their right of defense without assistance from a female official.Continuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsAsylum seekers (Women)No
Belgium Act of 24 December 2002, Article 479.
.
Nonrecognition of the right to residence for stateless children, who are not in a position to be economically and socially integratedContinuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrants (children)No
BelgiumAct of 30 April 1999Limited acces to the labour market for migrants and nationals of a foreign origin, which results in economic and social exclusion.Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrants; Persons of foreign originNo
BelgiumAct of 10 May 2007, Article 14 Unequal access of ethnic minorities to vocational guidance, employment placement services Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrants; Persons of foreign originNo
BelgiumRoyal Decree of 2 August 2002, Article 129Complaint body and procedure lack independence and effectiveness due to strict criteria (5 day limit to file a complaint, complaint to be filed before the director of the closed center)General actionRejectedMinority rightsAsylum seekersNo
BelgiumAct of 15 December 1980, Articles 71 and 72Chambre du Conseil ( appelate body for the decisions taken by the Aliens Office to detain an alien) ineffective due to an absence of substantive review of decisionsContinuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsAsylum seekersNo
BelgiumAct of 15 December 1980, Article 39/82, _4Aliens have a 24 hours to appeal the decision ordering their repatriation; time limit too short to prepare appeal/seek legal assistance.Continuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrants (stateless)Yes
BelgiumAct of 18 July 1991Limited prosecution of hate crimes committed by police forces; discrimination in sentencing; overall lack of proseuction of hate crimes
General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrants; Nationals of foreign originNo
BelgiumAct of 12 January 2005, Article 5 Inhumane conditions for women in prison due to overpopulation - violations of rights to health (hygiene; food safety) and privacy, restrictions on work-out time and number and length of visitsSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
BelgiumNational Plan of Action to combat intimate partner violence and other forms of domestic violence 2010-2014Lack of a comprehensive and coordinated national strategy to combat all forms of violence; absence of an integrated national program for violaence against women and girlsSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
CountryDiscriminatory PolicyIssueState ActionState ResponseProgram AreaAffected Group(s)Implementing ReformAct on Domestic Violence (Control and Punishment), Law No. 2066 AND Sex and Gender Based Violence and Gender Empowerment Strategy and Work Plan (Law No. 2069/70-2073/73).
DenmarkDanish Criminal Code of 1930, (Straffeloven)Danish penal code does not comply with the standards of International Human Rights Law, which recognizes the abesence of genuine consent, rather than the use of physical force, as an essential element of rape. This gap penalizes non-consensual sex with a victim in a "helpless state" as "sexual abuse" rather than rape, and permits instances of rape to go unrecognized and unpunished. General ActionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
DenmarkDanish Criminal Code, Article 218Non-consensual sex with a "helpless" victim is not considered a crime if the victim and perpetrator are married.Specific ActionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
DenmarkDanish Criminal Code, Article 220Sexual intercourse obtained through abuse of victim's professional or economic dependence punishable only if outside marriage - which is to say, non-consensual sex based on those factors within marriage is not considered a crime. Specific ActionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
DenmarkDanish Criminal Code, Article 227Penalties for any of the other related Articles (__ 216-226) may be reduced or waived if the victim and perpetrator marries.Specific ActionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
DenmarkNo legislation for women trafficked into the sex-industry.Potential victims of trafficking cannot seek asylum and are instead held back by law enforcement and not escorted to a crisis center while the process of identification is pending, which means they are often treated as criminals; (2) no legislation targeting the demand side of prostitutionWomen's Rights
DenmarkNo specific act on gender-based violence.Battered reunified female spouses lose their residence status if they leave a violent husband.General ActionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
DenmarkGreenland and the Faroe Islands have reservation from CEDAW and Convention Against Trafficking in Human Beings, etc.Lack of attention and resources devoted toward helping or protecting women / victims of domestic violence. Limited info available about the shleter and protection against gender-based violence in either Faroese or other languages - lack of legislation providing for effective protection (e.g., restraining orders).Continuing ActionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
DenmarkAlien Act of (May) 2010 Reunification of spouses (immigrants) requires both to have reached the age of 24 and combined have longer ties to Denmark than any other country + list of stringent language, financial requirementsSpecific ActionNotedMinority's RightsMinorities
DenmarkAlien Act of (May) 2010Non-Danish children between 15-18 do not have a statutory right to family reunification with their parents living in Denmark.
DenmarkAlien Act of (May) 2010A residence permit for a child can now be repealed if the minor stays 3 months outside the country.
DenmarkDanish citizenship for children determined by parent's genderA child gets Danish citizenship if born between a foreign woman and Danish man, but not between a foreign woman and a Danish woman. The Children's Act grants legal status of children to heterosexual parents, but not by same-sex couples (those are guided by the Adoption Act).Specific ActionWomen's Rights / Minority's RightsWomen / LGBT Minorities
DenmarkNo timeline or framework for repatriation of rejected asylum seekers, or for refugeesRefugees and asylum seekers are often detained for in detention facilities for 4+ yearsGeneral ActionAcceptedMinority's RightsRefugees / Asylum Seekers
DenmarkAsylum-seekers have restricted access to health careRefugees and asylum seekers have extreme difficulty accessing health care because they do not have a social security number required for identification and support.General ActionNotedMinority's RightsRefugees / Asylum Seekers
FijiDomestic Violence Decree of 2009Creates new offense of domestic violence; undermined cultural practice of reconciliation or bulbulu; women still unaware of right to bring claims; prosecutors continue to use regular Crimes Decree to charge perpetrators with "common assault" Specific ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
FijiCriminal Procedure Decree of 2009, __ 129, 130 For sexual crimes, corroboration no longer required and evidence of sexual history no longer admissible. Yet, consideration of reconciliation persists in SGBV crime sentencing Specific ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
FijiZero Tolerance Violence Free Campaign (national)Includes a national No Drop policy (reconciliation still stops full prosecution of cases of domestic violence in some cases); provides leadership training programs for womenSpecific ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
FijiSexual Offenses Units (SOUs)Training for law enforcement officers on how to properly handle survivors of sexual violence; only 4 in country; understaffed and underresourcedSpecific ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
FijiState Party Promulgation of July 6, 2009The government mandated that all Fijians, regardless of national origin, be classified as "Fijians," yet racial divides between indigenous Fijians and Indo-Fijians persist.Specific ActionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minoritiesPartial
FijiHuman Rights Commission Decree Part 3Commission has jurisdiction to handle racial discrimination claims, but only civil liability is created. Furthermore, the Commission can't investigate complaints of discrimination stemming from a government decreeSpecific ActionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minoritiesPartial
FijiCrimes Decree of 2009Adult consensual homosexual conduct is no longer criminalized, but the Marriage Act since 2002 has expressly prohibited same-sex marriage.General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsLGBTIQNo
FijiPermit procedures for religious organizations to hold meetingsAlthough Fiji removed the four-year restriction on annual meetings of the Methodist Church and no longer requires permits for Hindu temples that aren't registered with a particular religious body, some permit requirements persistGeneral ActionAcceptedReligious freedomMembers of minority religious groupsPartial
FijiNational Employment Centre Decree of 2009, Part 2, __ 12-13Employers liable for sexual harassment in the workplace for persons who went through the National Employment Center to obtain employment. Sexual harassment is still not a crime, but merely a civil offense General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
FijiEmployment Relations Promulgation 2007, part 11, _ 101The Promulgation grants women 84 days of maternity leave with full renumeration for the first 3 children (and half renumeration for additional children), but the policy hasn't been strongly enforced, as employers claim they do not have revenues to cover the additional costs.General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
FijiNational Minimum WageThe minimum wage was increased to $2 Fijian Dollars, but that is 32 cents below the recommended rate. Because female workers are oncentrated in lower-wage sectors, this policy disproportionately harms women.General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
FranceLaw No. 2004-228 of 15 March 2004Violates freedom of religion and disproportionately impacts certain religious minorities.Considering actionRejectedReligious freedomReligious minorities (Sikh; Muslim; Jewish)Partial
FranceLaw No. 2004-228 of 15 March 20041) Denies a significant number of children right to education. 2) Risks the radicalization of beliefs. 3) Limits expression of religion in unjustified circumstancesConsidering actionRejectedReligious freedomReligious minorities (Sikh; Muslim; Jewish)Partial
FranceArticles 78-1 to 78-6 (Code P_nal)Abusive police identity checks target certain minorities: pat-downs not regulated by law; police not obligated to offer individuals explanation for actionsSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsBlacks; Arabs (Young, Economically disadvantaged)Yes
FranceCultural norm: Demonization of "cults" Violent and institutionalized repression against some communities suspected of sectarian activity (e.g., "cults")Specific actionAcceptedReligious freedomReligious minoritiesYes
FranceNational Commission of Deontology in Secuirty (CNDS)Excessive force (including unlawful killings) by police officers against persons belonging to minority groups; ineffective prosecutions of perpetratorsSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsBlacks; ArabsYes
FranceLaw nÁ69-3 of 3 January 1969Discrimination against travellers results in difficulties accessing basic services and/or basic amenitiesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsTravellersNo
FranceLaw nÁæ2000-614 of 5 July 2000Nonimplementation of the provisions which compel cities of 5000+ inhabitants to have a specific area dedicated to travellers on their territory (e.g. parking)General actionAcceptedMinority rightsTravellersNo
FranceLaw nÁ 2012-051 of 22 March 2012Stigmatization and negative stereotyping of minorities of religion or belief labelled as sectarian within the school systemGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsReligious minoritiesYes
FranceLaw nÁ 2001-504 of 12 June 2001Anticult propaganda utilitzing fear tactics; ostracizes spiritual, educational or therapeutic minorities; absence of independent and competent observance of these minorities General actionAcceptedMinority rightsReligious minoritiesYes
FranceLaw nÁ 2001-504 of 12 June 2001Criminalization of members of new religious movements and leaders; discrimination against parents affiliated with unconventional religion in custody disputesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsReligious minoritiesYes
FranceEntrance exams and/or fees for civil servantsPreparatory classes for offices of magistrates and civil servants not sufficiently accessible to students from disadvantaged backgroundsConsidering actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minorities (Youth, Economically disadvantaged) Yes
FranceConstitution Article ILai_cite_ (separation of church and state incorporated into Constitution) principle that government offiicals are to remain neutral on religion in their public roles; discriminates against religious minorities in governmentConsidering actionAcceptedMinority rightsReligious minoritiesNo
FranceCultural norm: Normalization of anti-Muslim hatred in mediaDemonised representation of Muslims in the media and political discourse seen as main causes of hate crimes and discriminationConsidering actionAcceptedMinority rightsMuslimsNo
FranceCultural norm: Normalization of anti-Traveller hatred in mediaDiscrimination against travellers and recurrent negative comments in the media contributes to their marginalisationConsidering actionAcceptedMinority rightsTravellersNo
FranceLaw No. 2008-496 of 27 May 2008Unemployment rate is significantly higher among immigrant womenGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsImmigrant womenYes
FranceArt L411-1 to L441-1 of the "Code de l'entr_e et du s_jour des _trangers et du droit d'asile" (CESEDA), modified by Law No. 2003-1119 of 26 November 2003Access to resident card for immigrant women complicated by legal restrictions on family reunificationGeneral actionRejectedWomen's rightsImmigrant womenNo
FranceArt L711-2, Chapter 1, Book VII of the "Code de l'entr_e et du s_jour des _trangers et du droit d'asile" (CESEDA) Lack of access to healthcare, housing and social services for asylum seekers arriving in FranceGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsAsylum seekersYes
FranceAbsence of an agency in charge of gathering information on violence against womenA woman dies every three days from being beaten by her partner; almost one in 10 women in France has been the victim of domestic violenceGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenYes
GermanyBasic Law (Grundgesetz, Sect. 3 para. 1)

Book Twelve of the Social Code (Sozialgesetzbuch XII _ Sozialhilfe)
Insufficient inclusion rate of children with disabilities into general educational institutions, instead schools for "under-achievers" (Sonderschulen)General actionAcceptedMinority rightsChildren with disabilitesPartial
GermanyNational Action Plan against Racism

National Integration Plan

Anti-Discrimination Act
Lack of protection for migrants, ethnic or religious minorities subjected to racism, racial discrimination, xenophobia, etc. General actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minorities; Religious minorities; MigrantsPartial
GermanyLack of legislative provisions to strengthen integration of religious minorities with respect to employment and social participationLack of access for minority populations to education, employment, social participation; need to foster intercultural competencies & rework institutional frameworkGeneral actionAcceptedReligious freedomReligious minoritiesPartial
GermanyBasic Law (Grundgesetz, Sect. 136 - 141)Restrictions on wearing religious symbols to work in public institutions threatens freedom of belief of Muslim womenGeneral actionAcceptedReligious freedomMuslim womenPartial
GermanyCriminal Code Sect. 46 para. 2Criminal code requires condisderation of motivation in sentencing, but lack of investigation, prosecution and punishment of hate crimesConsidering actionAcceptedMinority rightsSinti; Romanies; Muslim, Jewish; Asylum seekers (African origin); Foreign nationals (African origin)Yes
GermanyBasic Law (Grundgesetz, Sect. 3 para. 1)
Lack of framework to integrate Sinti and Romanies regarding education, housing, employment, social participationConsidering actionAcceptedMinority rightsSinti; Romanies; MuslimsPartial
GermanyBasic Law (Grundgesetz, Sect. 3 para. 1)

National Action Plan against Racism

National Integration Plan

Anti-Discrimination Act.
Lack of synthesis of national programs to fully integrate all people regardless their origin and religionConsidering actionAcceptedReligious freedomPeople of foreign origin; MuslimsPartial
GermanyBasic Law (Grundgesetz, Sect. 136 - 141 Lack of protection of freedom of opinion and expression; lack of protection of freedom of religion and belief.General actionRejectedReligious freedomPeople of foreign originNo
GermanyLack of independent bodies to investigate police mistreatmentLack of investigation into alleged ill-treatment
by police in Germany; lack of independent police complaint mechanism
Specific actionRejectedMinority rights?No
GermanySecond Integration Indicator
Report (Federal Government Commissioner for Migration, Refugees
and Integration)
Lack of investigation of social and economic indicators to achieve improvements for migrants and minority groups and to measure the integration progress.Specific actionAcceptedMinority RightsEthnic minorities; MigrantsYes
GermanyBasic Law (Grundgesetz, Sect. 3 para. 1)

Anti-Discrimination Act

Lack of legislation prohibiting discrimination in public education
Lack of integration of non-German children in school forms, which evokes a low social status; lack of access of non-Germans to achieve a diploma (60%)General actionAcceptedMinority rightsNon-German childrenPartial
GermanyCurriculums of the L_nder Ministeries of Education of the L_nderLack of knowledge transfer regarding history/culture of Sinti and Roma; lack of awareness of contributions of those communities to German society and cultureConsidering actionAcceptedMinority RightsSinti; Romaniespartial
GermanyL_nder school laws (Baden-WÙrttemberg, Lower Saxony, Saarland, Hesse, Bavaria, Berlin, Bremen, North Rhine-Westphalia) Lack of integration of female immigrants in higher education system; lack of protection for religious symbols (ban on headscarves in parts of the public sector); lack of access to achieve employment while wearing religious symbolsContinuing actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen (Muslim; Immigrant)Partial
GermanyCriminal Code Sect. 130Lack of clear definition of racial discrimination in legislation; incitement to racial hatred criminalised only in Sect. 130 Criminal Code; lack of sanctions for hate crimesSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsRacial minoritiesPartial
GermanyNational Action Plan against RacismLack of Implementation/ advancement of the National Action Plan to Fight Racism for preventing racially motivated violence, xenophobia, anti-semitismGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsPersons of foreign origin (Blacks)Yes
GermanyCriminal Code Sect. 46 para. 2Lack of precise reference to racist motivations as an aggravating circumstance for ordinary offences, leading to little protection of non-white persons, Sinti and Romanies from violent, racist attacks; General actionAcceptedMinority rightsPersons of foreign origin (Blacks; Roma; Sinti)Yes
GermanyLack of a centralized database on data provided by victims or witnesses of racist or xenophobic incidentsLack of comprehensive monitoring and documentation of racial motivated crimes; rejection of establishment of a centralized database.Considering actionRejectedMinority rightsPersons of foreign originNo
GermanyTranssexual Law (Transsexuellengesetz), Sect. 8 para. 1 no. 2 Recognition of a transsexual's new gender only if (s)he is unmarried; condition has been declared void by the Constitutional CourtSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsLGBTYes
GermanyGender Equal Treatment ActLack of implementation of equal income regardless of gender; uneven wage level for men and womenGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
GermanyResidence Act (Aufenthaltsgesetz), Sect. 37 para. 2aLack of protection of victims of forced marriages, but slight improvement of the right to return of former female German residents before being forced to leave the countryGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen (Young migrants)Yes
GermanyGender Mainstreaming StrategyLack of implementation, monitoring and review of the strategy on Gender Mainstreaming; eventual abandonment of Gender MainstreamingContinuing actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
IcelandAct No. 62/1994, Administrative Law No. 37/1993It is unclear what will constitute racial discriminationSpecificAcceptedMinority RightsEthnic MinoritiesNot implemented
IcelandIncomplete legislation on racial discriminationThere is not comprehensive anti-discrimination legislation to protect all rights expressly set forth in articles 2 and 5 of CERD.SpecificAcceptedMinority RightsEthnic MinoritiesNot implemented
IcelandLack of National Human Rights InstituteIceland has no national human rights institution. Nothing is statutory and there is not enough funds to properly effectuate the Paris Principles.GeneralAcceptedNational Human Rights InstituteAll disadvantaged groupsPartially implemented
IcelandGeneral Penal Code No. 19/1940Preventive and awareness measures should be undertaken to combat discriminationContinuingAcceptedMinority RightsEthnic MinoritiesNot implemented
IcelandAct on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, No. 10/2008Gender gaps and racial inequality continue to occur.ContinuingAcceptedWomen and minority rightsWomen and minoritiesNot implemented
IcelandAct on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, No. 10/2008Lack of data and analysis on the incidence of violence against womenGeneralAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartially implemented
IcelandGeneral Penal Code art. 227aFailure to protect victims of traffickingGeneralAcceptedWomen and children's rightsWomen/ChildrenPartially implemented
IcelandAct on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, No. 10/2008Women underrepresented in leadershipGeneralAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartially implemented
IcelandAct on the Affairs of the Elderly No. 125/1999Elderly need access to health care and adequate standard of livingContinuingAcceptedRights of senior citizensElderlyNot implemented
IcelandAct on Working Terms and Pension Rights Insurance No. 55/1980Minorities need to be better integrated through access to employment without discriminationGeneralAcceptedMinority RightsEthnic MinoritiesNot implemented
IcelandAct on Working Terms and Pension Rights Insurance No. 55/1980Immigrants face a barrier with professional occupations they are otherwise qualified forGeneralAcceptedImmigrant rightsImmigrantsNot implemented
Iceland2007 Government Policy on the Integration of ImmigrantsImmigrants struggle disproportionately in the weaker economyGeneralAcceptedImmigrant rightsImmigrantsNot implemented
IcelandUpper Secondary School Act No. 92/2008The school dropout rates among immigrants are disproportionately high.GeneralAcceptedImmigrant rightsImmigrants, childrenPartially implemented
IcelandAct on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, No. 10/2008Rights of migrant women need to be protectedContinuingAcceptedMigrant rightsMigrant womenFully implemented
IcelandAct on Foreigners No. 96/2002Rights of foreigners and asylum seekers need to be further addressedContinuingAcceptedImmigrant rightsImmigrantsFully implemented
IcelandSocial Assistance Act No. 99/2007Welfare rights of vulnerable minoritiesGeneralAcceptedEconomic rightsMinoritiesNot implemented
IcelandPertains to the realizability of the Act on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and MenGender roles still affected by stereotyping adding to the gender gap between men and women.SpecificAcceptedGender equalityWomenPartially implemented
IcelandAct on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, No. 10/2008Violence against women, particularly minority womenContinuingAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen/Minority womenPartially implemented
IcelandCompulsory School Act No. 91/2008Children/parents' freedom of religion encroached upon by public schoolsGeneralAcceptedReligious freedomChildren/Minority religious groupsFully implemented
IcelandAct on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, No. 10/2008Underrepresentation of women in top positions in academiaGeneralAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNot implemented
IcelandAct on Equal Status and Equal Rights of Women and Men, No. 10/2008Lack of comprehensive definition of discriminationConsideringNotedWomen's rightsWomenPartially implemented
IcelandIcelandic implementation of Bangkok rulesInappropriate prison treatmentSpecificNotedWomen's rightsWomenNo information
IcelandAct on Registered Religious Communities No. 108/1999Discrimination against Muslims regarding their religion.GeneralAcceptedReligious freedomMuslimsPartially implemented
Iceland2003 Act on TraffickingSex-trafficking offenders are not being prosecutedSpecificAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNot implemented
ItalyNational Strategy for the inclusion of Roma, Sinti and TravellersLack of a comprehensive national anti-discrimination law concerning Roma, Sinti, and Travellers.Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma; Sinti; MigrantsNo
ItalyLegislative Decree no. 215 of 9 July 2003 - Article 2

Legislative Decree no. 286 of 25 July 1998 - Article 43
Discrimination against the Roma community, religious minorities, and migrants. Also a lack of equal opportunities for these groups..General actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma; Migrants; Religious MinoritiesNo
ItalyLegislative Decree no. 215 of 9 July 2003 - Article 2

Legislative Decree no. 286 of 25 July 1998 - Articles 43 and 44
Localised practice of mass identification on ethnic basis is common. Public authorities tend to minimize the extent of xenophobic violence and attacks.Continuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsRomaNo
ItalyLaw n. 482 of 15 December 1999According to Law n. 482 of 1999, Roma and Sinti communities cannot be considered as "linguistic minorities," which is defined by a group's stability and duration of its settlement in a specific area in the country. . General actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma; SintiNo
ItalyNational Strategy for the inclusion of Roma, Sinti and Travellers

Legislative Decree no. 286 of 25 July 1998
Forced evictions of Roma formal and informal settlements are common practice in the largest Italian cities.Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma; SintiPartial
ItalyLegislative Decree no. 286 of 25 July 1998Pilot project for the repatriation of a number of Roma (originally from Serbia) in a dignified and efficient manner must be monitored with respect to its preparation, implementation and evaluation.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsRomaNo
ItalyLegislative Decree no. 215 of 9 July 2003 - Article 2

Legislative Decree no. 286 of 25 July 1998 - Articles 43 and 44
Discrimination of Roma and Sinti, including through the media.General actionRejectedMinority rightsRoma; Sinti; MigrantsPartial
ItalyLegislative Decree no. 215 of 9 July 2003 - Article 2

Legislative Decree no. 286 of 25 July 1998 - Article 43
Racist and xenophobic violence not taken seriously and minimized by public authorities.Specific actionRejectedMinority rightsRoma; Sinti; MigrantsNo
ItalyLegislative Decree no. 215 of 9 July 2003 - Article 2

Legislative Decree no. 286 of 25 July 1998 - Articles 43 and 44
Racially motivated acts against Roma, Sinti and migrants.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma; Sinti; MigrantsPartial
ItalyConstitution - Articles 3 and 6Discrimination against minorities based on language and race, despite being prohibited by constitutional guarantees.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrantsPartial
ItalyLaw Decree no. 122 of 26 April 1993 ("Mancino Law")Exclusion of sexual orientation and gender identity from the list of grounds for hate crimes that trigger an increase in the sentence to be imposed for the crime.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsLGBTNo
ItalyConstitution - Article 3

Legislative Decree no. 216 of 9 July 2003 - Article 2
Discriminatory or biased attitudes and behaviour within the general public against LGBT, which is not a protected group in the constitution. No postiive action in this regard.Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsLGBTPartial
ItalyLegislative Decree no. 198 of 11 April 2006 - Article 27Discrimination agaijnst women in the labour market (underrepresentation in senior positions, concentration in low-wage sectors, wage gap, lack of implementation of equal pay for equal work) General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
ItalyLaw no. 228 of 11 August 2003

Legislative Decree no. 286 of 25 July 1998
Prosecution of trafficking victims for crimes of illegal immigration committed as a direct result of being traffickedGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsTrafficked victimsPartial
ItalyLaw no. 91/1992Lack of facilitated routes for citizenship for foreign children born in Itality and minors arriving in Italy at a young age.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsNon-citizens (children)No
ItalyLaw Decree no. 93 of 14 August 2013 (Law No. 119 of 15 October 2013)Lack of a national plan to combat all forms of violence against women, including domestic violenceGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
ItalyLegislative Decree no. 215 of 9 July 2003 - Article 2

Legislative Decree no. 286 of 25 July 1998 - Article 43 and 44
Lack of initiatives to give teeth to laws prohibiting ratial discrimination, especially against vulnerable groups of women (Roma and migrants)General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsRoma and Migrant WomenNo
KiribatiCitizenship Act 1979 [CAP 8A], section10(1)(2)Women cannot include husband/ children under naturalization; women who marry foreigners and leave Kirabati lose their citizenship.General ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiKiribati Constitution, section 22, 26Foriegn men who marry Kiribati women do not automatically receive citizenship.General ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiNative Lands Ordinance (Revised Edition 1977) [CAP 61]Women generally get land only as gifts from husband; brothers are prioritized over sistersGeneral ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiLaws of Kiribati Act 1989, section 5(2)Provides that in the absence of legislation, customary practices become part of the law of Kiribati; generally discriminatory against women.General ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiKiribati Constitution PreamblePreamble of Constitution renders the patriarchal system in which women are subordinate to men as acceptable and lawful.Specific ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiPenal Code (1965) [CAP 67] 1968Domestic violence treated as common assault under section 237General ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiPatriarchal societyThere are also no laws to protect women who are victims of domestic violence when living in a house situated on their husbandÍs family land.General ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiLaws of Kiribati Act 1989 Schedule 1, section 3(a)_(e)Customary law of forgiveness may impact sentencing; in sexual assault one may escape punishment altogether.General ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiThe Employment Act (1966) [CAP 30], section 79(1) Women prohibited from being employed in manual labor jobs, mining, and health and welfare services.Specific ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiThe Employment Ordinance (1966) [CAP 30], section 77 (a-h)Women prohibited from being employed between 6 pm to 6 am with few exceptions.Specific ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiMatter of the Distribution of the Monetary Estate of Tenamo Mouta Ex ParteFemale spouses are not beneficiaries of the monetary estate of the deceased.Specific ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiProvident Fund (Amendment) Act 2008 and the WorkmenÍsThe apportionment of funds is at the discretion of the court; high risk of women receiving an unfair share, even greater when she remarries.Specific ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiCRC and CEDAW Ratified But Not Implemented at the Local LevelNot incorporated into Kiribati legislation despite ratification.General ActionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiPenal Code (1965) [CAP 67], section 128Marital rape not specified as a punishable crimeGeneral ActionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiPenal Code (1965) [CAP 67], section 129No minimum sentence for rape and not tiered based on aggravating factors; allows for lighter sentencing of sexual assaults.General ActionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiKiribati Constitution Section 3Discrimination definition in Constitution does not include disabilitySpecific ActionNo ResponseMinority RightsDisabledNo
KiribatiKiribati Constitution Section 3Discrimination definition in Constitution does not include genderSpecific ActionNo ResponseWomen's RightsWomenNo
KiribatiNo specific disability legislationNo disability complaint legislation; no government school for disabled; weak training/support systemGeneral ActionAcceptedMinority RightsDisabledNo
KiribatiPenal Code (1977) [CAP 67], sections 153-155Criminal sanctions against sexual activity between consenting adultsSpecific ActionNo ResponseMinority RightsLGBTNo
LuxembourgCriminal Code Article 457-1 (2)Participation in organization promoting or inciting discrimination is illegal but not the organization itselfSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minorities (Arabs and Muslims)No
LuxembourgDiscriminatory conduct
towards non-nationals by public officials
Discriminatory attitudes towards ethnic minorities, in particular Arabs and Muslims, institutionalised at the level of national and local authoritiesSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minorities (Arabs and Muslims)Partial
LuxembourgNo comprehensive strategy/framework to combat prostitutionLack of programs to discourage demand for prostitution, discourage women from entering prostitution, and establish programmes of rehabilitation and support for women who wish to discontinue their lives in prostitutionSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenYes
LuxembourgNational Action Plan on Equality between Women and Men 2009_2014Neutral language doesn't address particularized discrimination experienced (e.g., by immigrant women, women with disabilities, etc.)General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
LuxembourgAct of 13 March 2009; Act of 8 May 2009; Act of 21 July 2012Comprehensive anti-human-trafficking policy that will provide training to all participants in the administration of justice and social services. There is a need to track these new programs to ensure implementation.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen; ChildrenYes
LuxembourgNational Action Plan on Equality between Women and Men 2009_2014Discrimination against women and inequality of treatment between women and men persists in certain Government sectors.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
LuxembourgAct of 8 Sept. 2003; National Action Plan on Equality between Women and Men 2009-2014Although domestic violence is now criminalized, rampant violence against women persists and there is little comprehensive data to understand the problem.Considering actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenYes
LuxembourgAct of 27 July 1997, as amended; Article 142 of Grand Ducal Regulation of 24 March 1989 Children born of detainees whose pregnancy had terminated during or just prior to incarceration are unsatisfactory, as they are living in a very limited and unstimulating space.Considering actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
Marshall IslandsNo comprehensive legislation for violence against women (domestic violence and sexual assualts)Domestic violence treated as a common assault.Specific ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Marshall IslandsConstitution, section 12(a)(2)"Sex" not included on list of discriminatory grounds; "gender" is includedGeneral ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Marshall IslandsPatriarchal system1 of 33 members of the Nitijela (Parliament) are women.General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Marshall IslandsConstitutionDoes not protect women from "indirect" discrimination.General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Marshall IslandsEmployment and Labour LawNo sexual harrassment policy.General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Marshall IslandsEmployment and Labour LawNo maternity leave.General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Marshall IslandsEmployment and Labour LawNo protection for dismissal because of pregnancy.General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Marshall IslandsConstitution, section 12(a)(2)Disability not included on list of discriminatory groundsSpecific ActionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledNo
Marshall IslandsNo specific disability legislationNo rights-based policy or legislation for provision of servicesSpecific ActionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledNo
Marshall IslandsLegal services not accessible to disabledGovernment & health services provided but not accessible to persons with disabilitiesSpecific ActionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledNo
MicronesiaNo comprehensive legislation for violence against women (domestic violence and sexual assualts)No provision for victims of SGBV to get free or low cost legal representation and psychological assistance; no shelters or transitional housing.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaPatriarchal societyVirtually no presence of women in legislature, judiciary, or executive.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaBride Price - traditional marriage practiceDemanding cash or goods for marriage of daughters.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaEarly Marriage - traditional marriage practiceAffects psychological and sexual health of women as well ast their economic and social rights.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaNo specific legislation for domestic violenceNo mandatory prosecution or minimum sentencing for domestic violence.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaNo legislation on sex trafficking or sex tourismSex workers are extremely vulnerable to rape and sexual assaults.General actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaNo prohibition on policies that expel pregnant studentsPunishes young girls and denies them a proper education, and thereby, impacting their future social and economic welfare.General actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaVirtually no social security systemLack of health care resources leads to a high rate of maternal mortality.Specific actionGeneral ResponseWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaFamily LawFault-based divorce. Have to show fault or separation for two years to get a divorce.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaForgiveness - traditional practice restores marital rightsUnequal power balance bars women from going through with divorce.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
MicronesiaHonor-based family cultureDiscourages child victims of abuse from reportingContinuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsChildrenNo
NauruCriminal Code of 1899, c. XXXII, section 347No minimum sentence for rape and not tiered based on aggravating factors; allows for lighter sentencing of sexual assaults.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
NauruCriminal Code of 1899, c. XXXII, section 348Marital rape not specified as a punishable crimeSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
NauruEmployment LawSexual harrassment in the work place is common and foreign women married to locals are particularly suseptible.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
NauruNo comprehensive legislation for violence against women (domestic violence and sexual assualts)Domestic violence treated as ordinary common assault.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
NauruPatriarchal systemLack of representation of women in Parliament.Continuing actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
NauruWeak support system for disabled personsUnequal access to employment; support not administered based on identifiable factorsGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledNo
NauruAdult-centered culturePhysical abuse of children common and public.Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsChildrenNo
NepalCultural Norm: DowryInadequate protection of victims of gender violence: Even though dowry is now prohibited, it is still practiced in certain communities. Dowry killings occur with alarming frequency across rurual populations, with impunity.GeneralAcceptedWomen's RightsWomenAct on Domestic Violence (Control and Punishment), Law No. 2066 AND Sex and Gender Based Violence and Gender Empowerment Strategy and Work Plan (Law No. 2069/70-2073/73).Caste Discrimination and Untouchability Act / 2011
NepalCultural Norm: Caste-based DiscriminationAlthough Interim Constitution prohibits the caste system, it remains in effect. There is no specific legislation against caste-based discrimination. Caste-based discrimination has not been criminalized. SpecificAcceptedMinority RightsMinorities: DalitsCaste Discrimination and Untouchability Act / 2011
NepalCaste-based discrimination against DalitsFailure to effectively enforce discrimination against Dalits; Dalits live in segregated communities and are often barred from entering public areas (e.g., food markets and water wells).Minorities: Dalits
NepalCultural Norm: Law enforcement discrimination against Dalits and womenPolice often refuse to record or investigate cases of violence against women (particularly Dalit women) because of cultural norms discriminating against womenGeneralAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
NepalDomestic Violence and Punishment Act 2065/2009Tens of thousands of women face violence reported every year - 80% of which is domestic violence - but often go unaddressed in spite of violation. Violence against women persist, especially in lower-castes.SpecificAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
NepalCultural Practice: Violence against women accused of witchcraftThe Women's Rehabilitation Center (WOREC) documented 82 cases of violence against women accused of witchcraft between July 2007 and September 2009. The women were severely beaten, stripped naked, and forced to eat human excrement. AcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
NepalNepali Supreme Court 2008 Decision: Pant v. NepalThe Nepali Government has ignored the supreme court decision ordering Nepalese government recognition of "third gender" in citizenship, and LGBT right to marry.SpecificAcceptedMinority RightsLGBTNot Implemented
NepalNepal Interim Const. 2007 part 1, _ 23. Under Section 3 ("Fundamental Rights"), Art. 23, proselytism and conversion are prohibited, limiting religious freedom and charitable deeds from religious groups.GeneralAcceptedReligious FreedomReligious MinoritiesNot Implemented
NepalSexual abuse of young girlsAlmost 40% of survivors of child sexual abuse and rape are girls below the age of 18 - lack of consistent law enforcement and protection mechanismsGeneralAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen33% seats have been reserved for women in political parties/civil service
NepalCultural Practice: Political exclusion of women and certain ethnic groups and DalitsDiscrimination of women, ethnic groups and Dalits in political institutions and in the political process still widely practiced. AcceptedWomen's RightsWomen33% seats have been reserved for women in political parties/civil service
NepalLack of food security/access predominantly affecting women, indigenous people, Dalits..Lack of implementation of government initiatives addressing hunger - food distribution often does not reach the most vulnerable populations.GeneralAcceptedMinority RightsMinorities and Women
NepalPersecution of Tibetan monks/refugeesNepalese police harass, torture, and extort bribes from Tibetan monks.SpecificNotedReligious FreedomMinorities
NepalProperty Ownership Document LawThe need to produce "property ownership document" to obtain citizenship often bars landless people from citizenship.
NepalWage / labor disparities between men and womenUnequal wages for equal work between men and women.GeneralAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
NepalWage / labor disparities disadvantaging DalitsNo set minimum wage or law protecting vulnerable laborersGeneralAcceptedMinority RightsMinorities
NepalIllegal status of prostitutes/trafficked womenNepali girls and women in brothels are often abused/ face violence, but most cases go unreported because they fear consequences of arrest / imprisonment because of their status.GeneralAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
NepalReligious Exclusion: Non-recognition and exclusion of MuslimsNepal does not recognize Muslims as a religious minority. Consequently, Muslims routinely face discrimination and are often excluded from the public sector.Religious FreedomReligious Minorities
NepalDiscrimination against and exclusion of other reigional communitiesThe Madhesi community is frequently discriminated based on their color, reigion, and religion, and are excluded from civic participationAcceptedMinority RightsEthnic Minorities
NepalPatriarchical citizenship rules discriminating against women - both Nepali and foreignChildren between a Nepali woman and a foreign man are denied right of citizenship, as are foreign women who are married to a Nepali man.GeneralAcceptedWomen's RightsWomen
NetherlandsLack of legislative and practical measures to eliminate all forms of discrimination and violence against women and children (of minority groups)Discrimination of women and children (of ethnic and religious minority groups) with respect to education, health, employment and social and political participationMinimal actionConsideringMinority rightsEthnic minorities; Religious minorities (Women, Children) No
NetherlandsLack of measures to prevent practice of racist, ethnic or religious profilingProfiling based on race, ethnic origin or religion.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minorities; Religious minoritiesNo
NetherlandsLack of measures to protect human rights in the context of preventive body searchesUnequal treatment of ethnic and religious minorities in the context of preventive body searches.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minorities; Religious minoritiesNo
NetherlandsCriminal Code _ 137dFrequent hate speech directed against Muslims; Racist and xenophobic" speech is a criminal offense if performed by political party, but little enforcementGeneral actionAcceptedReligious freedomMuslimsNo
NetherlandsCultural norm: Islamophobia.Legislation prohibiting discrimination and/or hate speech not enforced with respect to Muslim populationSpecific actionRejectedReligious freedomMuslimsNo
NetherlandsAliens Act 2000, Section 63

Official Instructions for the Police, Royal Military Constabulary and Special Investigating Officers
Lack of measures to prevent use of excessive force by security forces when forcibly repatriating migrants, refugees and asylum seekers.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrants; Refugees; Asylum seekersNo
NetherlandsAct of 1 September 1994 (Equal Treatment Act)Unequal access to the labour market as a result of discrimination with respect to ethnicity and raceGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsRacial minorities; Ethnic minoritiesNo
NetherlandsLack of legislation to prevent discrimination in detention policyHigh numbers of asylum-seekers and irregular migrants detained solely for immigration purposes; poor health and safety conditions in detention centersGeneral actionRejectedMinority rightsImmigrantsNo
NetherlandsEveryone Takes Part Action Programme (2007)Persistent discrimination against ethnic minoriites in recruitment and selection in the workplaceGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minorities (Women)No
NetherlandsNo anti-trafficking legislation enacted in Netherlands AntillesHuman trafficking not a separate criminal offense under Antillean lawGeneral actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
NetherlandsLack of enforcement of the legal prohibitions against discrimination in the enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rightsDiscrimination in enjoyment of economic, social and cultural rights persists; little deterrence due to lack of implementationGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinorities; WomenNo
NetherlandsCultural norm: Illegalen BarakkenStrong disfavor of illegal immigrants; physical and verbal abuse by police of illegal immigrants at prisonsGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrantsNo
NetherlandsCriminal Code __ 137c - 137eRacial hatred and related violence persists despite prohibition under criminal codeContinuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesNo
NetherlandsCriminal Code __ 137c - 137eIneffective punishment for instigation of violence in media, education, and religious institutionsSpecific actionRejectedMinority rightsMinoritiesNo
NetherlandsConstitution Article I

Act of 1 September 1994 (Equal Treatment Act)
Ban on gender discrimination not properly implemented/enforced; Large gaps in participation in the labor market and ParliamentGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
NetherlandsNo specific offense for domestic violenceInsufficient measures to protect women and children from violenceGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen; ChildrenNo
NetherlandsDomestic violence not recognized as ground for asylumTemporary resident permits not always provided to victims of domestic violenceGeneral actionRejectedWomen's rightsMigrants (Women)No
NetherlandsAct of 1 September 1994 (Equal Treatment Act)Access to labour market is limited for women as a result of lack of provisions to facilitate women with children (e.g., flexible work schedules)General actionAcceptedMinority rightsWomen's rightsNo
NetherlandsNational Youth Care Inspectorate (2010)Central government decentralizing youth care and cutting budgets, which has led to poor educational opportuntiies for children with disabilitiesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsChildren (Disabled)No
PalauPalau National Code Annotated (PNCA/17), section 2802 Marital rape is not unlawful.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
PalauPalau National Code Annotated (PNCA/25), section 301In absence of a will and death of the owner, land is inherited by the owner's oldest legitimate son.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
PalauNo comprehensive legislation for violence against women (domestic violence and sexual assualts)No shelters for victims of domestic violenceConsidering actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenYes - see Family Protection Bill
PalauFamily Protection BillNo domestic violence legislation; Bill currently pending.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenYes - bill passed October 2012
PalauPatriarchal system2 out of 29 women are represented in Congress; lack of representation in governmentGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
PalauEmployment & Labour LawSexual discrimination in the workplace, particularly dismissal due to pregnancyConsidering actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen (migrant workers)No
PalauMigrant worker transfers prohibitedMigrant workers prohibited from transferring from one employer to another unless they leave for 7 yearsContinuing actionNo ResponseMinority rightsMigrant workersNo
PalauPalau National Code Annotated (PNCA/17), section 2803Consensual sex between same-sex adults criminalizedSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsLGBTNo
PalauEmployment & Labour LawNo legal entitlement to maternity leaveContinuing actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaCulural Norm: PolygamyPerpetuates the idea that women have low status and are a commoditySpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaCultural Norm: Bride PriceGroom purchases his wife by paying her parentsSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaNon-adherence to CEDAWTo adhere to CEDAW, PNG must modify legislation to eliminate customary practices that discriminate against womenSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaPapua New Guinea ConstitutionSex or "gender" are not prohibited grounds of discirminationSpecific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaCultural Norm: Reconciliation through village courtsLack of accountability, since village courts promote reconciliation for violent offense, including sexual offenses rather than prosecutionGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaCultural Norm: Patriarchal systemFurthers stereotypes and contributes to violence against womenGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaNo legislation for domestic violence or preventing violence against womenNo framework to ensure society recognizes the gravity of the crime or provide accountability.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaState's failure to protect women from VAWShortage of emergency shelters and counselingSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaLaw enforcement failure to protect women from VAWWomen are arrested on minor offenses with the intent of sexually abusing themSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaLack of desegrated prison cells as a form of punishmentWomen are placed in male detainee cells and subject to gang rapesSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaCultural Practice: Sorcery ("puri puri") killings Tribesmen target "Sangumas" or witches who are often blamed for sudden or unexplained deaths. Women 6 X more likely to be accussed of sorcery then men.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen (HIV/AIDS)No
Papua New GuineaWeak support system for disabledLack of resources led to weak Community-based Rehabilitation program for disabled; little training for disabled or employers; little access to healthcareGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabled (rural, poor)No
Papua New GuineaWeak law enforcementDisabled frequently abused, often without redress due to lack of training and awarenessGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledNo
Papua New GuineaCultural Norm: Patriarchal systemLow levels of female participation in government; 1 woman in 109 seat Parliament in the past decadeGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Papua New GuineaCriminal Code (1974), sections 210, 212 Laws criminalizing homosexuality used by police to threaten/abuseSpecific actionRejectedMinority rightsLGBTNo
Papua New GuineaProperty rightsLegal redress for property harmed by environmental degradation terminatedSpecific actionRejectedMinority rightsIndigenousNo
RwandaLaw No. 23/20132 Governing the organization and Functioning of Nursery, Primary, and Secondary EducationProvision of education discriminates against non-English speakers and may be unaffordableContinuingAcceptedRight to educationChildrenFully implemented
RwandaSecond Economic Development and Poverty Reducation StrategyEconomic development excludes BatwaGeneralAcceptedMinority rightsBatwa minorityFully implemented
RwandaNine Year Basic Education programHidden school fees disproportionately affect people in poorer regions. As stated above, Batwa live disadvantaged livesContinuingAcceptedRights of the child, minoritiesBatwa minority, childrenFully implemented
RwandaLaw No. 13/2009 Section 3, Regulating Labour in RwandaLack of access to maternal health care especially in rural areasContinuingAcceptedWomen's health rightsWomenFully implemented
RwandaLaw No. 19/2013 determining the organization and function of the NCHRNational Human Rights Institute lacks financial and human resourcesGeneralAcceptedNational Human Rights InstituteAll disadvantagedFully implemented
RwandaRwanda Family Code Article 110, 206Husband still enshrined as chief of marital communityContinuingAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenFully implemented
RwandaLaw No. 59/2008 on Prevention and Punishment of Gender-Based ViolenceDomestic violence against womenSpecificAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenFully implemented
RwandaArticle 9(4) of Rwandan ConstitutionLack of women in decision-making at local levelGeneralAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenFully implemented
RwandaLaw No. 83/2013, establishing the Bar Association, Article 58 and 59Lack of access to justice for women, especially in gender violence contextSpecificAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenFully implemented
RwandaNine Years Basic Education FoundationLanguage policy provides advantage to English-speaking eliteGeneralAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesPartially Implemented
RwandaRwandan Constitution article 50, 51 (safeguarding the national culture without regard to whether Batwas are included, and also failing to mention ICESCR rights)Poverty and marginalization of Batwa minoritiesGeneralAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesPartially Implemented
RwandaLaw No. 5/2012 Governing the Organization and Functioning of International NGOs, Law No. 18/2008 Relating to the Punishment of the Crime of Genocide IdeologyTargeting of NGO activities and inhibition of their registrationGeneralAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesPartially Implemented
RwandaLaw No. 47/2001 on the Crime of Discrimination and SectarianismReligious rights curbed by restrictions on freedom of speech and assemblyGeneralNotedReligious freedomReligious minoritiesPartially Implemented
Rwanda2009 Law Regulating LaborHuman trafficking for commercial and sexual exploitation is a major problemGeneralNotedWomen/minority rightsWomen/minoritiesNot implemented
SamoaFamily Safety Act of 2013Needs to be implemented and comprehensive enough to protect women from domestic violence and provide continuing support and services.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SamoaProperty LawPatrilineal inheritance given legislative status; men control use of land and property.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SamoaPatriarchal societyDiscrimination continues to hinder women from accessing creidt or loans to purchase property or businesses.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SamoaLabour and Employment Act of 1972, Part VI, section 33(1)Women can't work between 12 a.m. - 6 a.m. without consent from the Commissioner.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenYes - repealed
SamoaNon-adherence to CEDAWFailure to domesticate CEDAW through legislation; split decision by courts about CEDAW's applicability.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SamoaPatriarchal society4 of 49 member of Parliament are women; women not allowed to participate in many village councils and get endorsement for their candidacy.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SamoaLabour and Employment Act of 1972,No maternity leave.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenYes - repealed
SamoaDIVORCE AND MATRIMONIALFault-based divorce sysetem; must meet one of the grounds to obtain a divorce; doesn't recognize the imbalance of power.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SamoaLabour and Employment Act of 1972No protection from dismissal if a woman takes maternity leave.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenYes - repealed
SamoaNational Disability Policy and Plan of ActionLimited resources led to slow progress in training and employment of persons with disabilitiesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledNo
SamoaPatriarchal societyUntitled citizens (women, youth) have no genuine right to vote in rural villagesGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SamoaXenophobic societyMigrant workers often paid below minimum wage and subject to unsafe conditionsSpecific actionRejectedMinority rightsMigrant workersNo
SamoaCrimes Ordinance 1961, Consolidated Acts of Samoa 2007-2008, section 58Criminalization of consensual "indecency between males" and sodomySpecific actionRejectedMinority rightsLGBTNo
Sierra LeoneThere is no legislation for enforcing or promoting the right to equalityWomen's rights are not being protected. Women's status in society is equal to that of a minor.General ReactionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneCitizenship Act of 1973 (amended 2006)The Citizenship Act directly discriminates against residents of non-African descent by not allowing them citizenship which prohibits them from participating in public life.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinorities
Sierra LeoneThere is no legislation for enforcing or promoting the right to equalityLegislation does not prohibit discrimination based on sexual orientation or gender identitySpecific actionNotedMinority rights, Women's rightsWomen, monoritiesNo
Sierra LeoneOfferences Against the Persons Act 1861, Section 61Provisions of laws are criminalizing sexual activity between homosexualsSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesNo
Sierra LeoneCultural Norm: Female Genital MutilationWomen and girls are suffering from harmful traditional practices such as female genital mutilation, early and forced marriages, and teenage pregnancyGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneThe Free Health Care Service policyInadequate healthcare in connection with birth delivery and maternal mortality has led to women not being properly cared for.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneFamily Support UnitsFamily Support Units are located in police stations tasked with investigating and providing support to victims of sexual violence are understaffed and unable to fulfill their task. Sexual violence cases are not being prosecuted.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneEducation Act of 2004Women and girls are continuing to face discrimination in accessing education because of issues of FGM and teen-age pregnancy leading to them being unable to return to school.Continuing actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneAlthough there is constitutional protection against civil, political, social, and economic rights of women, there is no legislation implementing such protection.Civil, political, social, and economic rights of women are being violated and lead to inequality of women. General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneTruth and Reconciliation CommissionWomen are continuing to be discriminated in politics in Sierra Leone.Continuing actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneDomestic Violence Act of 2007The Domestic Violence Act is not comprehensive enough. There are not enough efforts toward domestic violence against women. Police officers and medical professional have not been trained properly to deal with such issues. The Domestic Violence Act has only prosecuted one case.General actionAcceptedWomen's RightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneGender Justice Act of 2007There are obstacles preventing women from having proper access to justice. There is a lack of available legal assistance and awareness of women's rights.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneNational Gender Plan and National Action Plan UN Security Council Resolution 1325There is a lack of efforts to promote gender equality. Sierra Leone has not adopted any sort measures to implement the National Gender Plan or National Action Plan.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneFailure to submit human rights reportsFailure to submit all of its human rights reports which is causing their accountability for human rights issues to be limited.General actionAcceptedWomen's rights, minoritieswomen, minoritiesNo
Sierra LeoneGovernment did not enforce laws against trafficking set out by Trafficking in Persons Task ForceLaws are not being enforced against sex trafficking. Specifically women and girls are being forced into prostitution.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneWomen not getting proper treatment for HIV/AIDSHIV prevention, specifically affecting women; men are divorcing wives who test HIV positive, leaving them with no financial support and no means for treatmentGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneHuman Rights Commission is not getting enough support from government agenciesHuman Rights Commission does not have enough resources to adequately carry out their function. Government agencies were slow to respond or implement its recommendations.Specific actionAcceptedwomen's rights, minoritieswomen, minoritiesNo
Sierra LeoneSexual Offenses ActSuitable measures have not been implemented to protect child combatants, particularly girls who are victims of forced prostitution GeneralAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Sierra LeoneThere are no measures in place that regulate the activities of the local courts.Local courts and traditional leaders are not always following human rights violations and when justice is impeded it is the vulnerable who suffer. Women and minorities many times are not receivng fair hearings.GeneralAcceptedWomen's rights, minoritiesWomen, minoritiesNo
Sierra LeoneThe judicial committee has refused to take action on human rights violations that occurred in response to political-ethnic violenceInvestigate, prosecute and punish all those allegedly responsible for political-ethnic violence during and after the 2007 electionsSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesNo
Solomon IslandsPenal Code [Cap 26], XVI, section 136Marital rape not specified as a punishable crime.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsEmployment LawSexual harrassment not unlawfulSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsNo legislation on domestic violence or VAWNo framework to protect women and offer them full redress and support servicesSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsFailure to Protect: Law enforcementLaw enforcement training necessary to ensure protection against VAWSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsFailure to Protect: GovernmentNo effective means to track and report VAWSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsProperty Law (Wills Probate and Administration Act [CAP 33] 1986, section 84Unequal inheritance for women due to customary inheritance lawsSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsProperty LawRight to own land limited for womenSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsFamily LawChild custody rights favor menSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsCultural Norm: Patriarchal systemNo women representatives in the 50 member ParliamentGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsLack of legal aid assistance/ training for survivors of VAWThe Public Solicitor's Office (PSO) has refused to represent domestic violence victims to get a restraining order without visible signs of abuseSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsNon-adherence to CEDAWFailure to domesticate CEDAW provisions through legislationSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsNational Disability Policy (2005-2010)Widespread discrimination persists; Disability bill in draft before Parliament in 2010Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledNo
Solomon IslandsNo domestic violence legislationMust be prosecuted as common assaultSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Solomon IslandsPenal Code (Revised Edition 1996), 110, sections 160-162Criminal sanctions against sexual activity between consenting adultsSpecific actionRejectedMinority rightsLGBTNo
Solomon Islands"Bride price" customPayment for marriage promotes concept of women as commoditiesGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SpainRoma Development ProgrammeDiscrimination against the Roma community, imnigrants and religious minorities; racially motivated acts against themGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma; Migrants; Religious minoritiesNo
Spain San Argimiro c EspaÐa (28.09.2010)

Beristain Ukar c. EspaÐa (08.03.2011)

Otamendi Egiguren c. EspaÐa (16.10.2012).
Systematic police abuse of persons in prison facilitiesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsImprisoned personsNo
SpainLack of independent police complaint mechanismSerious human rights violations by law enforcement officials go unnoticed due to lack of oversightConsidering actionRejectedMinority rightsImprisoned persons (Basque Country)No
Spain San Argimiro c EspaÐa (28.09.2010)

Beristain Ukar c. EspaÐa (08.03.2011)

Otamendi Egiguren c. EspaÐa (16.10.2012).
Criminal offences by police officers and prison guards.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsDetainees; MigrantsNo
SpainCriminal Procedure Act, Articles 509, 520 bis, 527 If suspected of terrorism, five day period of detention "incommunicado" (without legal assistance or access to medical doctor)General actionRejectedMinority rightsPersons of foreign originNo
SpainAliens LawDiscrimination in the effective enjoyment of the rights to education, work and heatlh.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minorities; MigrantsNo
SpainLack of traning for law enforcementInsufficient human rights training for members of the police, prison and judicial staffGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsWomen; Children; Ethnic minorities; Persons of foreign origin; LGBTNo
SpainLack of legislative provisions regarding inclusion of Roma/immigrant/impoverished children in education systemWeak integration of Roma children, children belonging to immigrants families or children living in socio-economically deprived areasGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma (Women, Children); Immigrants; Children in low socioeconomic areasNo
SpainCultural norm: racism and xenophobiaNegative attitudes towards immigrants.General actionAcceptedMinority rightsImmigrantsNo
SpainStrategic Plan for Citizenship and Integration (2007-2010)Despite national plan, recent increase in acts of intolerance; authorities' response to these acts not timely or adequateSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsImmigrants.No
SpainStrategic Plan for Citizenship and Integration (2007-2010)Lack of public awareness of information on available domestic remedies against racial discrimination and legal means for compensationGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsRacial minoritiesNo
SpainCultural norm: racism and xenophobiaNo record of official statistics or reports on racially motivated crimes.Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsRacial minorities; Ethnic minorities; ImmigrantsNo
SpainCultural norm: racism, sexism, xenophobiaInefficient human rights education programmes for fighting racism, xenophobia and discrimination and violence against women. Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsWomen; Racial minorities; Ethnic minorities; ImmigrantsNo
SpainOrganic Act 1/2004 of 28 December 2004Gender-based violence persists; no speicifc provisions regarding human trafficking, prostitution, genitual mutilation; no specific effort to prevent sexual violenceSpecific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SpainOrganic Act 1/2004 of 28 December 2004Not effective access to appropriate resources for victims of gender-based violence; necessity to facilitate access to medical and legal servicesGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SpainOrganic Act 1/2004 of 28 December 2004No speicifc provisions regarding immigrant womenGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsImmigrant womenNo
SpainOrganic Act 1/2004 of 28 December 2006

Organic Act 1/1996 of 15 January 1996
Trafficking in women and children persistsGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsWomen; ChildrenNo
SpainCultural norm: patriarchal systemStereotypes regarding the role and responsibilities of women and men.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SpainPlan To Combat Human Trafficking for the Purposes of Sexual Exploitation (2009-2012)Pilot program seeks to combat increasing prevalence of human traffickingSpecific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomen (Persons of foreign origin)No
SpainOrganic Act 3/2007

Council on WomenÇs Participation
Council not yet functioning as of 2009General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen.No
SpainLaw 45/2007 of 13 December 2007Policy for sustainable development of rural areas insufficient to address views on traditional gender roles in these areasGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen (Rural)No
SpainOrganic Law 3/2007 of 22 March 2007Wage gap between men and women persists; women underrepresented in managerial and decision-making positionsGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
SpainOrganic Law 2/2009 of 11 December 2009Specifies only a limited number of rights applicable only to migrants in a "regular situation" General actionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrants (Women; Irregular situation)No
SpainOrganic Act 1/2004 of 28 December 2004Irregular women suffer from personal disadvantage when reporting acts of violenceGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen (Irregular situation)No
TajikistanWeak legislative protection, promotion of women's rights in terms of discriminatory social and cultural attitudes and practicesLimited legislative measures to combat gender-discriminatory cultural practicesSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TajikistanState employment, access to justice, and title practices favoring menFailure to account for gender equality in access to state decision-making positions, education, justice and landGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
TajikistanFor example, the Law on Prevention of Family ViolenceWeak enforcement of legislation ensuring gender equality and combating violence against women and girlsGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
TajikistanCultural barriers to women understanding their rightsLack of infrastructure informing women of their rights under CEDAWSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TajikistanCultural subordination of women widely accepted, with state acquiescence in practiceNo measures targeting cultural norms that maintain the subordination of womenSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TajikistanViolence against women not universally criminalizedNormalization of violence against women perpetuates patriarchal and discriminatory stereotypesSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TajikistanLack of shelters for women DV victims or staff trained to investigateAdopt legislative measures to criminalize and prosecute gender violence at public instances, as well as establish shelters for women victims of violence and train staff involved into investigations of those casesSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
TongaConstitution of TongaWomen do not have right to own and inherit registered/ customary/ family landConsidering actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TongaPatriarchal ("Ulumotu'a - oldest male) soceityLack of representation of women in electoral politicsContinuing actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TongaFamily LawChild support rights inequitable for the womanSpecific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TongaAct of Constitution of Tonga, section 111The eldest male child inheritsConsidering actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TongaLaw Enforcement: Need to implement "no drop policy"This ensures that all cases of VAW brought to law enforcement will be properly investigatedSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TongaNo domestic violence legislationNo framework for protection of women; Bill on domestic violence introduced in 2012Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
TongaLaws of Tonga Criminal Offences [CAP 18] 1988, articles 136, 137, 139, 140Criminal sanctions against consensual sex between adultsSpecific actionRejectedMinority rightsLGBT
TongaConstitution of TongaGender not listed as prohibited form of discriminationGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TongaConstitution of TongaTongans and non-Tongans equal under the Constitution, but different legal ages of majorityContinuing actionAcceptedMinority rightsNon-TongansNo
TongaEmployment lawNo general maternity leave policyGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluNon-adherence to CEDAWNeed to amend the Constitution and legislation to comply with CEDAW.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluNo comprehensive legislation for violence against women (domestic violence and sexual assualts)No framework to ensure society recognizes the gravity of the crime or provide accountability.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluPenal Code of 1965 (Cap 10.20), revised 2008, Part XVI, section 128Marital rape not specified as a punishable crime.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluPenal Code of 1965 (Cap 10.20), revised 2008, Part XVI, 156 (5)Where a girl 15 years or over has sex with her grandfather, father, brother or son, she can be found guilty of a felony; overlooks imbalance of power.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluPenal Code of 1965 (Cap 10.20), revised 2008, Part XVI, section 129There are maximum but not minimum sentences for sexual offences; gives too much discretion and leads to lighter sentences.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluForgiveness - traditional practice used in VAW casesTraditional apologies being a form of resolution for VAW (rape, incest, assaults etc.); lack of reporting of DV, withdrawl of cases, and no prosecutionSpecific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluTeburoro v Pou & Attorney-General (2005) High
Court Appeal Case 17/03
Without national legislation that codifies international treaties that Tuvalu has ratified, judges will be hesistant to cite international law.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluNative Lands Act (NLA) of 1956 (Cap 46.20), revised in 2008, Part IV, section 20 (2)Child born out of wedlock would automatically be given to father if he accepts paternity after the child turns 2.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluMarriage Act (Cap 17.25), revised 2008, s7(1)Parties wishing to marry who are under 21 must get written consent from the father.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluTuvalu Lands Code of 1962, section 9 (ii)Inheritance distribution for sons exceed share for daughters.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluFalekaupule Act of 1997 (Cap 4.08), revised 2008, Inability of women to vote on budgetary matters in the local government council.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluEmployment Act of 1965 (Cap 40.28), revised 2008, Gender wage gap; makes it more difficult for a woman to break into the workforce and sustain herself and the family.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluEmployment Act of 1965 (Cap 40.28), revised 2008, Part VIII, section 77Prohibition on women working at night between 6 p.m. - 6 a.m.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluEmployment Act of 1965 (Cap 40.28), revised 2008, section 79Women cannot work underground in mines.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluTuvalu Constitution, section 27 (3) (d)Allows discrimination
in areas such as adoption, marriage, divorce, burial and land
General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluMoetolo - cultural practice condoning rapeCondoning rape of a woman in the fale (traditional house) if no family member who is present during the rape opposes.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluTuvalu Constitution, section 27(1)"Sex" or "gender" are not included as grounds for discrimination.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluPatriarchal system leads to unequal Representation of Women in Tuvalu Parliament1 female politician since Tuvalu gained independence in 1978.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
TuvaluTuvalu Constitution, section 27(1) Disabilities are not included as grounds for discriminationSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledNo
TuvaluMase Teonea v. Nanumaga Kaupule (2009)Restriction of religious practice declared unconstitutional, but not implementedGeneral actionAcceptedReligious freedomTuvalu Brethren Church membersNo
TuvaluReligious Organization Restriction Act (RORA)Denies establishment of religion unless approved by island Falekaupule with no legal redress if application deniedGeneral actionAcceptedReligious freedomTuvalu Brethren Church membersNo
United KingdomFour reservations and an interpretive declaration to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesSteps should be taken to remove the reservations and interpretive declaration to the Convention on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesConsidering actionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledPartial
United KingdomRoma and Travellers are not categorised as an ethnic minority group in official crime, health, work and pensions dataAbsence of official data on Roma and Travellers has resulted in failure to protect and a lack of targeted support to these communitiesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma, TravellersPartial
United KingdomLocalism Act 2011Discrimination Roma and travellers experience on planning issues at the local level prevents appropriate provision of accommodation sitesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma, TravellersNo
United KingdomRace Relations Amendment Act 2000, section 19DMinister can authorise discrimination in carrying out immigration function on the basis of nationality, ethnic or national originGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsEthnic minoritiesNo
United KingdomRegular negative comments regarding Roma and Travellers by Government and senior ministersNegative comments by public officials exacerbates hostile media coverage of Roma and TravellersGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma, TravellersNo
United KingdomPolice discrimination against Roma and TravellersDiscriminatory attitudes towards Roma and Travellers institutionalised at management and front line level in policeGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsRoma, TravellersNo
United KingdomTerrorism Act 2000, section 44 and Schedule 7Disproportionate targeting of Asian and black communities for security checksSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsMuslims, ethnic minoritiesNo
United KingdomFailure to protect Muslims who face increasing incidence of hate crimesIncreased incidence of hate crimes in the context of demonisation of Muslims in legal frameworkGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsMuslimsNo
United KingdomCriminal Justice Act 2003, section 146 and schedule 21Aggravating factors in sentencing apply unequally to hate crimes based on race, religion, sexual orientation, disability or transgenderGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsRelgious and ethnic minorities, LGBT, migrants, disabledNo
United KingdomContinuing practical problems in asylum process for LGBT claimantsProcedural realities do not fully uphold the human rights of LGBT asylum seekers, especially for transgender asylum seekersGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrants, LGBTPartial
United KingdomImmigration Act 1971, section 3(c)(ii)The ñno recourse to public fundsî immigration rule should not apply to those fleeing violence or the threat of violenceGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsMigrants, WomenPartial
United KingdomCivil Legal Aid (Procedure) Regulations 2012, section 33Access to legal aid in cases of domestic violence requires evidence to be provided under one of the 'gateways'General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
United KingdomRace Relations (Amendment) Act 2000Failure of some public authorities, particularly in Scotland and Wales, to comply with their obligations under the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 to collect and publish data on the situation of minority ethnic communitiesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesNo
United KingdomFailure of the census categories to adequately represent minorities.Failure of the census categories to adequately represent minorities, leading to inadequate or incomplete data collection General actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesNo
United KingdomNo positive race equality duty on private sector employers in England or Northern Ireland.Discrimination in the private sectorGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsNo
United KingdomLow proportion of minority ethnic communities represented in the Houses of Parliament, the devolved Assemblies and Parliaments, the Greater London Assembly and local councilsGovernment representation does not sufficiently reflect minority ethinic communitiesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsPartial
United KingdomNo legal protection for Roma/Traveller/Gypsy families in relation to traditional land use, housing and educationInsufficient protection of traditional land use, housing and education rights for Roma/Traveller/Gypsy familiesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsPartial
United KingdomUnauthorised
Encampment (Northern Ireland) Order 2005
Indirect discrimination against Irish Travellers in relation to housing in Northern IrelandGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsNo
United KingdomSplit along sectarian lines of housing estates and schools in Northern Ireland.Structural religious discrimination in Northern IrelandGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsNo
United KingdomRace Relations (Amendment) Act 2000Failure to extend the Race Relations (Amendment) Act 2000 to Northern IrelandGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsNo
United KingdomNegative and predjucial media reporting of Gypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsDiscriminatory attitudes toward Gypsies/Travellers/migrant workers/asylum seekers/MuslimsGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsNo
United KingdomNationality, Immigration and Asylum Act 2002 Citizenship requirements leading to excessively restrictive application or direct or indirect discrimination on grounds of race, colour, language, religion, nationality and national or ethnic originGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsNo
United KingdomNon-ratification of International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their FamiliesInsufficient protection of migrant workers and their familiesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsNo
United KingdomLack of enforcement of labour protections, leading to migrant exploitation in Northern Ireland in certain industries and of Chinese migrant workers in EnglandInadequate protection of migrant workersGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsPartial
United KingdomLimited remedies in Employment Tribunal for racial discrimination casesInsufficient protection against racial discrimination in employment situationsGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsGypsies, Travellers, migrant workers, asylum seekers and MuslimsNo
United KingdomFailure to provide adequate protections for Non-EU victims of human traffickingDifferential treatment of victims of human trafficking on basis of immigration status resulting in EU citizens being more likely to be identified as victims of traffickingGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinorities and migrantsNo
United KingdomTerrorism Act 2000Stop and search - power of Chief Constables to authorise, in certain localities, the exercise of stop and search powers without the requirement of reasonable suspicionSpecific actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinorities, migrants and religious groupsNo
United KingdomWorkforce monitoring pursuant to fair employment legislation in Northern Ireland authorises employers to make a determination of the "community background" (i.e. religion) of their employeesReligious Profiling in Northern IrelandSpecific actionAcceptedReligious freedomReligious groupsNo
United KingdomNo positive legislative duty on public institutions to promote religious equalityFailure of public institutions to promote religious equalitySpecific actionAcceptedReligious freedomReligious groupsNo
United KingdomNo legislation in Scotland prohibiting incitement to hatred against religious groupsFailure to protect against incitement to hatred against religious groups in ScotlandSpecific actionAcceptedReligious freedomReligious groupsNo
United KingdomFailure to sign and ratify the European Convention on the Legal Status of Migrant WorkersFailure to ratify the European Convention on the Legal Status of Migrant WorkersGeneral actionAcceptedReligious freedomMinorities, migrant workersNo
United KingdomFailure to sign and ratify the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their FamiliesFailure to ratify the International Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of their families to ensure protection of ethnic religious minorities and their familiesGeneral actionAcceptedReligious freedomMinorities, migrant workersNo
United KingdomMinimal enforcement of labour protections for migrant workersMigrants working under temporary or no contracts, leaving them vulnerable to exploitationGeneral actionAcceptedReligious freedomMinorities, migrant workersPartial
United KingdomEquality Act 2010, section 9(5)Put in practice a national strategy to eliminate discrimination against caste, through the adoption of secondary legislation under the Equality Act 2010 that prohibits such discriminationGeneral actionRejectedMinority rightsMinoritiesPartial
United KingdomReservation to International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationWithdraw interpretative declaration on article 4 of the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationConsidering actionRejectedMinority rightsMinoritiesNo
United KingdomSection 3, Race Relations Act 1976Exclusion of Scottish Gypsies, Cornish and Muslims from Framework Convention for the Protection of National Minorities by virtue of narrow application to "racial groups" General actionAcceptedMinority rightsScottish Gypsies, Cornish, Muslims, prospective immigrantsNo
United KingdomSection 19D, Race Relations Act 1976Permits discrimination for certain acts in immigration and nationality casesGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsScottish Gypsies, Cornish, Muslims, prospective immigrantsNo
United KingdomReservations to UN Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination Against WomenRemove reservations to the CEDAWSpecific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
United KingdomThe speed of reducing the gender pay gap has slowed considerablyAdopt Government policies and legislations to address the pay gap between men and womenSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
United KingdomInflexible family leave hampers women's ability to combine work and family life.Adopt Government policies and legislations to address the pay gap between men and womenSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
United KingdomAwaiting establishment of centralised Sexual Assault Referral Centre and specialist domestic violence courts to help prevent violation of women's rights, in Northern IrelandViolence against Women - Criminal Laws and PracticeGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
United KingdomEU Directive on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting VictimsImplement the EU Directive on Preventing and Combating Trafficking in Human Beings and Protecting Victims by April 2013Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen, migrants and minoritiesPartial
United KingdomUK Government has signed but not yet ratified Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic ViolenceSign the Council of Europe Convention on Preventing and Combating Violence Against Women and Domestic ViolenceSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
United KingdomSection 7(3), Abortion Act 1967Abortion legislation does not apply to Northern Ireland.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
United KingdomFailure to cater for the particular needs of women offenders in Northern IrelandImplementation of ïBangkok RulesÍ - Women OffendersConsidering actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
United KingdomFailure to review impact of minimum age limit for overseas spouses.Prevention of forced marriages _ assess impact of minimum age limit for overseas spousesConsidering actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomenNo
United KingdomFailure to create strategic oversight bodyProtection against violence against women_ implementation of strategic oversight bodySpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
United StatesInadequate protection for workers and prohibition on collective bargaining.Not recognizing the right to associate as established by the ILO for migrant, agricultural workers and domestic workers. General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsChildren, minorities.Partial
United StatesUse, at the federal and state levels, of racial profiling by police and immigration officers State sanctioned profiling on the basis of race and religion.Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsLatinos (especially Mexicans), Muslims (Immigration); Blacks, Latinos, Muslims (Law enforcement)Partial
United StatesPolice brutality, stereotyping, incidents of excessive use of force by police, and failure to prosecute perpetrators of police brutality. Discrimination by police against minorities and larger, institutionalized failure to protect. Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsRacial minorities, LGBT persons. No
United StatesPolice brutality and use of excessive force against, inter alia, Latino and African American persons and undocumented migrants, and failure to investigate and prosecute perpetrators of above brutality.Discrimination by police against minorities and larger, institutionalized failure to protect. General actionAcceptedMinority rightsLatinos, African Americans, undocumented migrantsNo
United StatesExcessive force in immigration control; no justice for victims.Discrimination by police against minorities and larger, institutionalized failure to protect. Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsRacial minorities.No
United StatesBarriers to civic participation by indigenous peoples.Indigenous peoples are not engaged in or participating in decisionmaking on measures affecting their natural environment, subsistence, culture and spiritual practices. General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsIndigenous minorities.No
United StatesDenial of rights to indigenous peoples and failure to implement UN Declaration.Discrimination against indigenous people.General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsIndigenous minorities.No
United StatesFailure to protect workers, leading to abuse of women and minorities in workplace. Bad conditions and lack of labor protection legislation, which results in woman and undocumented migrants becoming subject to discriminatory treatment and abuse in workplace. General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsfemale migrants (in addition to women generally and migrants who are minorities).No
United StatesUnfair immigration policyDiscrimination against immigrants on basis of race, religion and ethnicity. Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinorities, immigrants. No
United StatesNo review of mandatory minimum sentences to assess (prevent?) disproportionate impact on racial and ethnic minorities.Disproportionate impact of mandatory minimum sentences on racial and ethnic minorities.Considering actionAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesPartial
United StatesFailure to protect migrants and religious and ethnic minorities against discrimination.Discrimination against migrants, and religious and ethnic minorities. General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsMigrants, religious and ethnic minorities Partial
United StatesFailure to posecute perpetrators of racially motivated acts targeting migrants and minority communities.Prosecute perpetrators of racially motivated acts targeting migrants and minority communities.General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsMinoritiesPartial
United StatesFailure to take measures in the areas of economic and social rights for women, and provide equal access to work and housing. Failure to reduce number of homeless people. Economic and social rights for women, and provide equal access to work and housing. Reduce number of homeless people. General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen; MinoritiesPartial
United StatesInsufficient oversight of law enforcement use of excessive force, particularly as directed against racial minorities. Failure to prosecute perpetrators of excessive force. Excessive force used against racial minorities; impunity of perpetrators.General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsRacial minoritiesNo
United StatesReservations, denunciations and interpretations of the CCPR, ICERD, and Convention against TortureDiplomatic efforts to undermine compliance with CCPR, CERD, and Convention against Torture. Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsAll, plus the international communityPartial
United StatesInsufficient legislative and administrative measures taken to address racial discrimination and inequalities in housing, employment and educationRacial discrimination and inequality in housing, employment and education.General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsAfrican Americans, Hispanics and Asians (as identified in sources, not by Recommending Country)Partial
United StatesRacial disparities in application of death penalty; discriminatory practices.Racial disparities in application of death penalty.General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsRacial minorities
United StatesInsufficient prudential and legislative measures in place to prevent racial bias in criminal justice system.Racial bias in criminal justice system.General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsRacial minorities.No
United StatesLack of programs to counter growing trends of Islamophobia and xenophobia in societyGrowing trends of Islamophobia and xenophobia in society.Specific actionAcceptedReligious freedomReligious minoritiesNo
United StatesNational system to register entry and exit of citizens from certain countries in the Middle East, North Africa and South Asia; Racial profiling and stereotyping of Arabs, Muslims and South AsiansStereotyping of, and discrimination against ethnic and religious minorities and minority visitors. Specific actionAcceptedReligious freedom, Minority rightsVisitors to US from Middle East, South Asia, and North Africa. People of Middle Eastern, South Asian and North African descent. Partial
United StatesLegal system does not adequately compensate victims of racial and xenophobic hate crimesCompensation for victims of racial hate crimes.General actionRejectedMinority rightsRacial minorities (Ecuadorians of special concern to Recommending Country)Partial
United StatesRacial profiling in local authority enforcement of immigration laws; failure to prosecute and provide recourse to victims of related human rights violations.Racial profiling in immigration enforcement. Failure of government to address human rights violations resulting from racial profiling.General ActionRejectedMinority rightsRacial minoritiesNo
United StatesRacism in immigration and law enforcement, including AZ SB1070Racism in immigration and local law enforcement.Specific actionRejectedMinority rightsMinorities and immigrantsNo
United StatesLack of legislation prohibiting racial and religious profiling, particularly in the context of counterterrorism. Racial and religious profiling.Specific actionAcceptedReligious freedom, Minority rightsReligious and racial minorities.Partial
United StatesMaintenance of system of faulty security checks that, when performed on persons with Muslim names, provide many false positive "hits" which result in innocent persons with common muslim names being identified as terrorists and facing hardships. Religious profiling of muslims leading to hardships.General ActionAcceptedReligious freedom, Minority rightsMuslims with common muslim names.Partial
United StatesLack of awareness campaigns to combat stereotyping and violence against LGBT minority, and lack of access to public service and human rights protection for sex workers. Discrimination on basis of sexual orientation or gender identity; lack of access to public services and protections for sex workers.Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsLGBT and sex workersNo
United StatesFailure to take measures to address discrimination against individuals on basis of sexual orientation or gender identityDiscrimination on basis of sexual orientation or gender identity.General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsLGBTPartial
United StatesFailure to take further measures to prevent migrant women and foreign adopted children from being exposed to domestic violence.Domestic violence against migrant women and foreign adopted children.General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen, minority children
United StatesIneffective measures to prevent human rights abuses, particularly violence against women, by U.S. military personnel stationed at foreign basesHuman rights abused, paricularly against women, by U.S. military personnel stationed at foreign bases.General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen, local populations in locations where U.S. has military basesPartial
United StatesInsufficient and ineffective policies to combat violence against women, child prostitution and gun violence. Violence against women, child prostitution, and gun violence. General ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen, childrenPartial
United StatesMandated maternity leave policy is only 12 weeks, unpaid and not available to all workers. Lack of adequate federal mandatory maternity leave policy.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsWomen, families, low-income workersNo
United StatesBlanket abortion restriction on humanitarian aid covering medical care given to women and girls raped and impregnated in armed conflict.Abortion rights for rape victims.Specific actionRejectedWomen's rightsFemale victims of rape; women in armed conflict zonesPartial
United StatesInsufficiently urgent and effective efforts to guarantee human rights for people with disabilities.Lack of human rights for people with disabilities.General ActionAcceptedMinority rightsPeople with disabilitiesPartial
United StatesProsecution of people with mental illness and minors.Failure to protect people with mental illness and minors.Specific actionRejectedMinority rightsPeople with mental illness, and minorsPartial
United StatesDeath penalty applied to crimes committed by persons with mental illness.Failure to protect people with mental illness from criminal punishment.Specific actionAcceptedMinority rightsPeople with mental illnessPartial
VanuatuInstitute No Drop Policy for domestic violence casesProper investigation of domestic violence cases necessary.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuNon-adherence to CEDAWFailure to domesticate CEDAW through legislation; split decision by courts about CEDAW's applicability (see John Noel v. Obed Toto (1994)General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuNon-adherence to CEDAWNeed to amend legislation to comply with CEDAWGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuFamily Protection ActNeed effective implementation and resources to combat domestic violenceGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenPartial
VanuatuCultural practice - Bride PriceGroom giving family of the bride money in exchange for marrying their daughter; used to justify VAW against women.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuFamily Protection ActLegal aid not readily available to victims of violence; not built into legislation.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomen (Disabled)Partial
VanuatuEmployment Act, consolidated edition 2006, c. 160, Part 8Remove discriminatory provisions for womenGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuPatriarchal societyWomen are underrepresented in political life.Continuing actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuVanuatu Constitution, section 2, 74The Constitution is the Supreme Law of the Land, but rules of custom inform land rights; no clarity on whether custom or domestic legislation prevails when in conflict; custom, especially in land rights, has a disparate impact on women's land rightsGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuCitizenship Act (Cap 112), section 10Foreigner married to a Vanuautu woman does not have automatic citizenship rights.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuCitizenship Act (Cap 112), section 11Adopted child does not automatically become a citizen even if mother is a citizen of Vanuatu.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuCitizenship Act (Cap 112), section 12Woman applying for citizenship through naturalization cannot inlude her husband and children.General actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuIsland Court Act (Cap 167)Community based courts where decisions are based on customary law that generally discriminate against women; no provision in the Act is specifically discriminatoryGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VanuatuVanuatu Constitution, Article 5Discrimination definition does not include disabilityGeneral actionAcceptedMinority rightsDisabledNo
VanuatuCultural practice :"Kastom"Drop policy undermined by "kastom," or the exchange of goods and passing judgment acting as mitigating factors in domestic violence sentencingGeneral actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VenezuelaRatify Convention on the Rights of Persons with DisabilitiesNeed to amend the Constitution and legislation to comply with CRPD.Specific actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VenezuelaNo control over massive circulation of illegal firearmsGovernment has no statistics and left gun circulation fully unregulatedSpecific actionAcceptedWomen's rights, Minority rightsMinorities, WomenYes
VenezuelaConstitution, Title IV "Public Power" 1999Effectively, there is no separation of power between judiciary and other branches. So, the government can shun bringing to justice those who commit human-rights violations/ crimeGeneral actionAcceptedSociety at largeSocietyNo
VenezuelaPresidential Commissions for the Prevention and Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination in the Venezuelan Educational System 2005Though enrollment numbers have increased greatly, the schools themselves are not appropriated enough fundsContinuing actionAcceptedWomen's rights, Minority rightsWomen, MinoritiesNo
VenezuelaDesacato Laws, Article 132 Venezuelan Penal C odeAllows for libel and disrespect of the government to be criminally punishable. Puts immense discretion on government as to what entails suchSpecific actionNoted
VenezuelaConstitution, Art. 19-135Though discrimination on the basis of sex, race, creed, social standing and individual human rights to all are in the Constitution, there is unsatisfactory application and redress available.Continuing actionAcceptedMinority Rights, Women's Rights, Disabled RightsMinorities, Women, DisabledYes
VenezuelaConstitution, Art. 81Need for further implementation so that disabled may have "full and autonomous exercise of his or her capabilities"Continuing ActionAcceptedMinority Rights, Women's Rights, Disabled RightsMinorities, Women, DisabledYes
VenezuelaMinistry of People's Power for Penitentiary Service 2011Due to weak security, terrible infrastructure and overcrowding, Venezuelan prisons remain excessively violentGeneral actionAcceptedMinority Rights, Women's RightsMinorities, WomenNo
VenezuelaFundamental Law on the Right of Women to Live Free of Violence 2007Specifies only 19 forms of violence against women; no transparency on statisticsGeneralAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
VenezuelaOrganic Law on the Right of Women to a Violence-Free Life, Article 56Trafficking of women is ONLY prohibited for (19) purposes of sexual exploitation, forced labor or slaveryContinuing actionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenYes
VenezuelaNational Commission on Police Reform (CONAREPOL)Societal norm that domestic abuse is a "private matter" has not been eradicated from police forceConsidering ActionAcceptedWomen's rightsWomenNo
Temaia Tiaoti Mackenzie
Compensation Ordinance
CAUSES ORDINANCE 1961, Part II, section 7

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International Center for Advocates Against Discrimination - ICAAD
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Americans in U.S. territories can’t vote for president. This week the Supreme Court refused to hear a case to extend voting rights to Americans in U.S. territories. Hear what people on Guam have to say about the issue:
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